The electoral system currently used in Tanzania is mainly “First Past the Post”. This system is similar to other electoral systems operating in some of ex-British colonies. The whole country is demarcated into constituencies and wards. Each constituency elects its representative to the Parliament while every ward in Tanzania mainland elects a councillor to be a representative in a council.
Every registered Political Party has the right to sponsor one Candidate for Presidential, Parliamentary and Councillors Elections. As such in every contested seat an election can have up to eighteen candidates because at the moment there are eighteen Political Parties with permanent registration. A candidate who wins majority votes is declared elected.
In respect to the Presidential Election, if a Presidential Candidate hails from one part of the United Republic his/her running mate who is a Vice-Presidential Candidate shall come from the other part of the Union and both are elected together and at the same time. The Presidential Candidate who wins the majority of votes is declared President and his/her running mate is automatically declared Vice President.
Tanzania has also a system of proportional representation according to votes, in the elections of Members of the Parliament for Women Special Seats. These are special seats for women which are thirty percent of the total number of elected constituency members, plus five members elected by the Zanzibar House of Representative, the Attorney General of the United Public of Tanzania (ex-officio Member of the Parliament), the Speaker and ten presidential nominees.
Regarding the councillor’s election, proportional representation for women special seats, is not less than one third of the all elected Councilors and Members of Parliament in each Council. The special seats are apportioned according to seats each political party, has won in the council.